# Monthly Archives: February 2016

## A Formal Version of the Third Way

I believe by using mereological sums, I avoid the charge of the quantifier shift fallacy.

D1: God is the x such there is not some y by which x receives the necessity it has, and x is a member of the essentially ordered causal series by which things receive their necessity .

P1. For all x, if it is possible that x does not exist, then there is a time at which x does not exist.

P2. If there is a time at which the mereological sum of everything does not exist, then there does not exist now the mereological sum of everything.

P3. If there exists now some x, then there exists now the mereological sum of everything.

P4. I exist now.

P5. If necessarily there exists the mereological sum of everything, then there is some x that necessarily exists, and x is a part of the mereological sum of everything.

P6. If there is some x that necessarily exists, then if for all x, x necessarily exists, then there is some y such that x receives the necessity it has from y, only if there is an essentially ordered causal series by which things receive their necessity and it does not regress finitely.

P7. For all z it is not the case that there is an x, such that both x is a member of the essentially ordered causal series by which things receive z and it is not the case that z regresses finitely.

P8. For all x, if x necessarily exists, then x is a member of the essentially ordered causal series by which things receive their necessity.

P9. For all x, if there is not some y by which x receives the necessity it has, and x is a member of the essentially ordered causal series by which things receive their necessity, then for all z, there is not some y by which z receives the necessity it has, and z is a member of the essentially ordered series by which things receive their necessity, and z is identical to x.

C1. God necessarily exists.

Note: D1 tells us that God does not receive his necessity from any other cause, but, being a part of the causal series by which things receive their necessity, is the cause of necessity in other things.

Let:

E!x ≝ x exists

E!_{t} ≝ x exists at time t

Fx ≝ x regresses finitely

Oxy ≝ x is a member of essentially ordered causal series y

Rxy ≝ x receives the necessity it has from y

σ<x,P> ≝ the mereological sum of all x that P.

σ<e,E!> ≝ (∀x)[E!x ⊃ (x ≤ e)] & (∀y)[(y ≤ e) ⊃ (∃z)(E!z & (y ⊗ z)]^{1}

e ≝ everything

g ≝ (ɿx)[~(∃y)Rxy & Oxl]

i ≝ I (the person who is me)

l ≝ the causal series by which things receive their necessity

n ≝ now

1. (∀x)[♢~E!x ⊃ (∃t)~E!_{t}x] (premise)

2. (∃t)~E!_{t}σ<e,E!> ⊃ ~E!_{n}σ<e,E!> (premise)

3. (∃x)E!_{n}x ⊃ E!_{n}σ<e,E!>(premise)

4. E!_{n}i (premise)

5. ☐E!σ<e,E!> ⊃ (∃x)[☐E!x &(x ≤ e)] (premise)

6. (∃x)☐E!x ⊃ {(∀x)[☐E!x ⊃ (∃y)Rxy] ⊃ (∃x)[Oxl & ~Fl]} (premise)

7. (∀z)~(∃x)[Oxz & ~Fz] (premise)

8. (∀x)[☐E!x ⊃ Oxl] (premise)

9. (∀x){[~(∃y)Rxy & (Oxl & Fl)] ⊃ (∀z)[(~(∃y)Rzy & Ozl) ⊃ (z = x)]} (premise)

10. ♢~E!σ<e,E!> (IP)

11. ♢~E!σ<e,E!> ⊃ (∃t)~E!_{t}σ<e,E!> (1 UI)

12. (∃t)~E!_{t}σ<e,E!> (10,11 MP)

13. ~E!_{n}σ<e,E!> (2,12 MP)

14. (∃x)E!_{n}x (4 EG)

15. E!_{n}σ<e,E!> (3,14 MP)

16. E!_{n}σ<e,E!> & ~E!_{n}σ<e,E!> (13,15 Conj)

17. ~♢~E!σ<e,E!> (10-16 IP)

18. ☐E!σ<e,E!> (17 ME)

19. (∃x)[☐E!x &(x ≤ e)] (5,18 MP)

20. ☐E!μ & (μ ≤ e) (19 EI)

21. ☐E!μ (20 Simp)

22. (∃x)☐E!x (21 EG)

23. (∀x)[☐E!x ⊃ (∃y)Rxy] ⊃ (∃x)[Oxl & ~Fl] (6,22 MP)

24. ~(∃x)(Oxl & ~Fl)] (7 UI)

25. ~(∀x)[☐E!x ⊃ (∃y)Rxy] (23,24 MT

26. (∃x)~[☐E!x ⊃ (∃y)Rxy] (25 QN)

27. (∃x)~[~☐E!x ∨ (∃y)Rxy] (26 Impl)

28. (∃x)[~~☐E!x & ~(∃y)Rxy] (27 DeM)

29. ~~☐E!ν & ~(∃y)Rνy (28 EI)

30. ☐E!ν & ~(∃y)Rνy (29 DN)

31. ☐E!ν (30 Simp)

32. ☐E!ν ⊃ Oνl (8 UI)

33. Oνl (31,32 MP)

34. ~(∃x)[Oxl & ~Fl] (7 UI)

35. (∀x)~[Oxl & ~Fl] (34 QN)

36. ~[Oνl & ~Fl] (35 UI)

37. ~Oνl ∨ ~~Fl (36 DeM)

38. ~~Oνl (33 DN)

39. ~~Fl (37,38 DS)

40. Fl (39 DN)

41. ~(∃y)Rνy (30 Simp)

42. Oνl & Fl (33,40 Conj)

43. ~(∃y)Rνy (Oνl & Fl) (41,42 Conj)

44. [~(∃y)Rνy & (Oνl & Fl)] ⊃ (∀z)[(~(∃y)Rzy & Ozl) ⊃ (z = ν)] (9 UI)

45. (∀z)[(~(∃y)Rzy & Ozl) ⊃ (z = ν)] (43,44 MP)

46. ~(∃y)Rνy & Oνl (33,41 Conj)

47. [~(∃y)Rνy & Oνl] & (∀z)[(~(∃y)Rzy & Ozl) ⊃ (z = ν)] (45,46 Conj)

48. [~(∃y)Rνy & Oνl] & (∀z)[(~(∃y)Rzy & Ozl) ⊃ (z = ν)] & ☐E!ν (31,47 Conj)

49. (∃x){[~(∃y)Rxy & Oxl] & (∀z)[(~(∃y)Rzy & Ozl) ⊃ (z = x)] & ☐E!x} (48 EG)

50. ☐E!g (49 Theory of Descriptions)

QED

^{1}Formulation of definition for everything based influenced by Filip, H. (n.d.) “Mereology”. Online: https://user.phil-fak.uni-duesseldorf.de/~filip/Mereology.pdf

## Vexing Links (2/13/2016)

Happy St. Valentine’s Day readers! I have been busy with my dissertation, so I have not had an opportunity to post any new arguments or articles. In the meantime, here are some links of note:

- The Vatican Library Digitizations Project is very exciting! I imagine there will be some extraordinary treasures in there.
- The true history of Socrates’s last day on Earth. Plato (or maybe Phaedo) had it all wrong.
- Wisecrack has an awesome video on Philosophy and the Walking Dead. See the connections to Rome, and the ways in which the Walking Dead makes us confront the meaning of life and death.
- Dr. Larycia Hawkins claimed that Christians and Muslims worship the same God. Subsequently, she was placed on administrative leave following a controversity at Wheaton College. It looks like she will be terminated. Many philosophers have weighed in on the question, including Dr. Francis Beckwith, Dr. Bill Vallicella, Dr. Dale Tuggy, Dr. William Lane Craig, and Dr. Lydia McGrew. I think I am close to Vallicella’s position in that I think the question may be intractable, or at least depend upon what features one is going to insist upon as fixed, when determining the reference. Perhaps the bigger issue is the disturbing trend in academia to discipline and fire professors when they voice positions with which the administration disagrees. The fact that so many thinkers have arrived at completely different positions may tell you that Dr. Hawkins was taking a position that is not settled within Christian orthodoxy. Indeed, if we construe this as a question in the philosophy of language and the question of reference, then it seems that one can reasonably agree with Dr. Hawkins and be a staunchly orthodox Christian.
- On the same theme of academic freedom, the President of Mount St. Mary’s College in Maryland, Simon Newman, decided to implement a plan to identify and cull out freshman who were unlikely to flourish and graduate (rather than, you know, help your students succeed). He alledgly compared such freshmen to fuzzy bunnies who need to be drowned. Faculty and administration who disagreed with Newman were terminated, even if they had tenure. A provost was removed from his position. It now looks like Newman is under pressure to take it all back. At the same time, it is coming to light that Newman wants to rid MSM of her Catholic tradition and identity. This is a troubling trend in Catholic education, to say the least.
- On the Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy Graham Oppy has updated his entry on Ontological Arguments, Daniel Nolan has updated his entry on Modal Fictionalism, and Christopher Menzel has an updated entry on Possible Worlds.
- Read Dr. Ed Feser’s review of Jerry Coyne’s
*Faith versus Fact*. It has to be the most scathing and hilarious review ever written. - Dale Tuggy poses his “Jesus is God” challenge. Perhaps when I have time, I will offer a substantive critique, but I think there are issues with P2 and P4, which render the argument unsound. The first issue is that I suspect that identity statements about God are not subject the Leibnizian laws.
- This may be an older site, but it is new to me and it looks like it has a ton of resources for anyone interested in Early Church History and various original language documents: Documenta Catholica Omnia.
- I’ve been enjoying the music of Mikis Theodorakis lately.